Australia: A Continent Without Native Powdery Mildews? The First Comprehensive Catalog Indicates Recent Introductions and Multiple Host Range Expansion Events, and Leads to the Re-discovery of Salmonomyces as a New Lineage of the Erysiphales

Australia: A Continent Without Native Powdery Mildews? The First Comprehensive Catalog Indicates Recent Introductions and Multiple Host Range Expansion Events, and Leads to the Re-discovery of Salmonomyces as a New Lineage of the Erysiphales

In contrast to Eurasia and North America, powdery mildew (Ascomycota, Erysiphales) are understudied in Australia. There are more than 900 known species globally, with less than 60 recorded this time from Australia. Some notes Australia dubious as identification is alleged, which is based on the host-pathogen list of plants from abroad. The purpose of this study is to provide the first comprehensive catalog of all of powdery mildew species in Australia. This project resulted in (i) a list of up-to-date of all taxa have been identified in Australia based DNA barcode sequence published prior to this study; (Ii) the proper identification of 117 new specimens are collected from all over the country; and (iii) the proper identification of 30 herbarium specimens collected between 1975 and 2013.

The study confirmed 42 species representing 10 genera, including two genera and 13 species recorded for the first time in Australia. In Eurasia and North America, the number of species of powdery mildew is much higher. Phylogenetic analysis of the collected flour mildews of Acalypha spp. Erysiphe transfer acalyphae lead to Salmonomyces, resurrected genus. Salmonomyces acalyphae comb. November is the newly discovered offspring of Erysiphales. Other taxonomic changes are Oidium transfer ixodiae to Golovinomyces.

Powdery mildew infection was confirmed in 13 Australian native plant species in the genera Acacia, Acalypha, cephalotus, Convolvulus, Eucalyptus, Hardenbergia, Ixodia, Jagera, Senecio, and Trema. Most of the causal agent is a polyphagous species that infect many other host plants both overseas and in Australia.

All flour mildews infect native plants in Australia which is phylogenetically closely related to the species known abroad. The data showed that Australia is a continent without a native starch mildews, and most, if not all, species have been introduced since the European colonization of the continent.

Australia: A Continent Without Native Powdery Mildews? The First Comprehensive Catalog Indicates Recent Introductions and Multiple Host Range Expansion Events, and Leads to the Re-discovery of Salmonomyces as a New Lineage of the Erysiphales
Australia: A Continent Without Native Powdery Mildews? The First Comprehensive Catalog Indicates Recent Introductions and Multiple Host Range Expansion Events, and Leads to the Re-discovery of Salmonomyces as a New Lineage of the Erysiphales

Discarded conventional warfare (gunpowder) Catalog Baltic Sea

paper presented to explain quickly discarded conventional munition that provides up-to-date information about potentially dangerous objects lying on the seabed. certain aspects of certain types of weapons maritime history are identified and analyzed, along with how to catalog the objects for further presentation and development program (software). This article discusses the contemporary state of the underwater object of both conflicts using the example of ammunition taken from the maritime region of Poland (Bay of GdaƄsk mainly due to the specific role of this basin during World War II).

The impact on the maritime environment in terms of human activities together with ecological aspects are outlined. The effects of research and experience on naval activities and group duty cycle of NATO action to destroy the underwater object in the waters of the Baltic Sea are presented. The role of emerging technologies for neutralization autonomous underwater dangerous objects emphasized as an element that increases the efficiency of these activities.


Comprehensive, high-quality reference genome that is required for functional characterization and task taxonomy of human intestinal microbiota. We present Gastrointestinal Unified Human Genome (UHGG) collection, consisting of 204 938 prokaryote genomes nonredundant of 4644 the intestine. This genome encodes> 170 million protein sequences, which we arrange in the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Protein (UHGP) catalog.

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UHGP more than double the amount of intestinal protein compared with those present in Gene Integrated catalog. More than 70% of the species cultured representatives UHGG deficiency, and 40% of UHGP less functional explanation.