A Catalog of Microbial Genes From the Bovine Rumen Unveils a Specialized and Diverse Biomass-Degrading Environment

Background: rumen microbiota provide essential services to host and, through its role in the production of ruminant livestock, contributing to food security and human nutrition. A thorough knowledge of the genetic potential of rumen microbes will provide an opportunity to improve the sustainability of ruminant livestock production systems. Availability catalog reference genes from the gut microbiomes has advanced the understanding of the role of microbiota in health and disease in humans and other mammals. In this work, we established a reference gene catalog prokaryotes from cow’s rumen.


Results: Using our deep metagenome sequencing to identify 13.82588 million non-redundant prokaryotic genes from cow’s rumen. Compared with human, pig and mouse gut metagenome catalog, rumen larger and richer functionality and microbial species associated with the degradation of plant cell wall material and the production of methane. The gene that codes for the enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of plant polysaccharides show a very high wealth that are otherwise not possible to conclude from the available genome sequencing metagenomics or shallow. quickly expanding dataset carbohydrate-degrading enzyme described in the rumen.

Using independent dataset from a group of 77 cows eat four common dietary patterns, we found that only <0.1% of the genes possessed by all animals, which contrasts with large overlap of functions, ie, 63% for KEGG function. Different diet-induced differences in the relative abundance than the presence or absence of the gene, which explains the large livestock adaptation to rapidly adjust to changes in eating patterns.


Conclusions: These data bring new insights into the function, carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, and microbes of the rumen to complement the information available in microbial genomes. Catalog is a significant biological resources enable a better understanding of phenotypic and biological processes and will be expanded as new data are made available.

 A Catalog of Microbial Genes From the Bovine Rumen Unveils a Specialized and Diverse Biomass-Degrading Environment
A Catalog of Microbial Genes From the Bovine Rumen Unveils a Specialized and Diverse Biomass-Degrading Environment

Catalog exogenous risk factors for bladder carcinogenesis.

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the latest findings about the risk factors of bladder cancer.Most from the available data come from a retrospective analysis. Smoking is a risk factor for the most common and important. Work, diet, and exogenous exposure to environmental carcinogens, as well as some lifestyle factors can increase the risk of developing bladder cancer cancer.Bladder is a common malignancy worldwide. smoking, exposure to aromatic amines and arsenic are known risk factors for bladder cancer.

Evidence on the risk factors that can be modified such as exposure to a carcinogen derived from dietary or environmental and occupational hazards are still weak. a medical condition that causes chronic inflammation, insulin resistance change, negative modulate the immune system and / or genetic alterations may play a role in carcinogenesis of bladder cancer. Further studies, however, it is necessary to identify possible risks of exogenous factors, as well as their interaction, which gets a part in carcinogenesis of bladder cancer.

GeneGlide? RNAi Delivery Control

M1082-10
EUR 237.00

GeneGlide? RNAi Delivery Control

M1082-100
EUR 835.00

GeneGlide? RNAi Delivery Control

M1082-50
EUR 495.00

T7 RNAi Transcription Kit

TR102-01 25 rxn
EUR 256.00

T7 RNAi Transcription Kit

TR102-02 50 rxn
EUR 404.00

pAd/BLOCK-iT-DEST RNAi Gateway Vector

PVT12297 2 ug
EUR 1119.00

dsDNA plasmid

30R-AD006 1 mg
EUR 994.00
Description: Double stranded DNA plasmid

pUC118 Plasmid

PVT0002 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pUC19 Plasmid

PVT0003 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pUC119 Plasmid

PVT0004 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pBR322 Plasmid

PVT0009 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pSP64 Plasmid

PVT0013 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pSP73 Plasmid

PVT0014 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pACYC177 Plasmid

PVT0017 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pACYC184 Plasmid

PVT0018 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pBAD18 Plasmid

PVT0708 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pBAD24 Plasmid

PVT0709 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pBAD30 Plasmid

PVT0710 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pBAD33 Plasmid

PVT0711 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pBAD43 Plasmid

PVT0712 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pKJE7 Plasmid

PVT0804 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTf16 Plasmid

PVT0805 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pTrcHisA Plasmid

PVT0807 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTrcHisB Plasmid

PVT0808 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTrcHisC Plasmid

PVT0809 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTrcHis2A Plasmid

PVT0810 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTrcHis2C Plasmid

PVT0812 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pRSETA Plasmid

PVT0813 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pRSETB Plasmid

PVT0814 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pRSETC Plasmid

PVT0815 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTXB1 Plasmid

PVT0819 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pTYB1 Plasmid

PVT0820 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTYB2 Plasmid

PVT0821 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTYB4 Plasmid

PVT0822 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pMCSG9 Plasmid

PVT0823 2 ug
EUR 273.00

pMCSG19 Plasmid

PVT0824 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pBV220 Plasmid

PVT0827 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pBV221 Plasmid

PVT0828 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pBV222 Plasmid

PVT0829 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pSUMO Plasmid

PVT0830 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTWIN1 Plasmid

PVT0832 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pTWIN2 Plasmid

PVT0833 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pDrive Plasmid

PVT0834 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pCDNA3.0 Plasmid

PVT1001 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pCDNA3.1 (- ) Plasmid

PVT1003 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pCDNA3.1 (+) Plasmid

PVT1004 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pCDNA4.0 Plasmid

PVT1013 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pCDNA5 Plasmid

PVT1015 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pCDNA5to Plasmid

PVT1016 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pVAX1 Plasmid

PVT1018 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pOG44 Plasmid

PVT1026 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTT5 Plasmid

PVT1032 2 ug
EUR 366.00

pCEP4 Plasmid

PVT1037 2 ug
EUR 325.00

SuperCos1 Plasmid

PVT1039 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pIRESNeomycin Plasmid

PVT1042 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pIRESNeomycin3 Plasmid

PVT1043 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pN3 Plasmid

PVT1209 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pGL4.15 Plasmid

PVT1310 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pGL4.19 Plasmid

PVT1311 2 ug
EUR 325.00

psiSTRIKE Plasmid

PVT1319 2 ug
EUR 325.00

psiCHECK2 Plasmid

PVT1320 2 ug
EUR 293.00

pmirGLO Plasmid

PVT1321 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pTRE2pur Plasmid

PVT1402 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pSAM_Cam Plasmid

PVT14727 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pFastBacHTC Plasmid

PVT14760 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pPZP100 Plasmid

PVT15887 2 ug
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pBI221 Plasmid

PVT15888 2 ug
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pRK793 Plasmid

PVT15907 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pDIRECT_23A Plasmid

PVT15923 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pDIRECT_26G Plasmid

PVT15931 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pUDE731 Plasmid

PVT15961 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pMP2463 Plasmid

PVT15962 2 ug
EUR 370.00

RK2 Plasmid

PVT15969 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pMES4 Plasmid

PVT15975 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pAcGP67B Plasmid

PVT15977 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pCDNA3.4 Plasmid

PVT16033 2 ug
EUR 370.00

Atre Plasmid

PVT16041 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pBIND Plasmid

PVT1701 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pACT Plasmid

PVT1703 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pG5Luc Plasmid

PVT1705 2 ug
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pBinGFP2 Plasmid

PVT17080 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pXPR_502 Plasmid

PVT17092 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pDONR223_PER1_WT Plasmid

PVT17103 2 ug
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pCAMBIA1304 Plasmid

PVT17257 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pCXSN Plasmid

PVT17258 2 ug
EUR 370.00

MC1061 Plasmid

PVT17261 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pVLT33 Plasmid

PVT17262 2 ug
EUR 474.00

pRK793 Plasmid

PVT17265 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pSC189 Plasmid

PVT17266 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pDIRECT_26G Plasmid

PVT17267 2 ug
EUR 370.00

RK2 Plasmid

PVT17268 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pEE6.4 Plasmid

PVT1802 2 ug
EUR 928.00

pEE12.4 Plasmid

PVT1803 2 ug
EUR 928.00

pAdTrack Plasmid

PVT2001 2 ug
EUR 325.00

MIGR1 Plasmid

PVT2201 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pLP2 Plasmid

PVT2325 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pUMVC Plasmid

PVT2341 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pBI221 Plasmid

PVT3006 2 ug
EUR 370.00

pCAMBIA0380 Plasmid

PVT3009 2 ug
EUR 512.00

pCAMBIA1200 Plasmid

PVT3010 2 ug
EUR 512.00

pCAMBIA1300s Plasmid

PVT3012 2 ug
EUR 512.00

pCAMBIA1303 Plasmid

PVT3015 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pCAMBIA1380 Plasmid

PVT3017 2 ug
EUR 345.00

pCAMBIA1381 Plasmid

PVT3018 2 ug
EUR 345.00

pCAMBIA2200 Plasmid

PVT3019 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pCAMBIA2300 Plasmid

PVT3020 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pCAMBIA2301 Plasmid

PVT3021 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pCAMBIA3301 Plasmid

PVT3023 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pLXSN Plasmid

PVT3028 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pGWB504 Plasmid

PVT3102 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTRV1 Plasmid

PVT3200 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTRV2 Plasmid

PVT3201 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pTCK303 Plasmid

PVT3203 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pPIC3.5K Plasmid

PVT4001 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pPIC9k Plasmid

PVT4003 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pPICZA Plasmid

PVT4004 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pPICZB Plasmid

PVT4005 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pGAPZA Plasmid

PVT4009 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pGAPZB Plasmid

PVT4010 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pGAPZC Plasmid

PVT4011 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pGAPZaA Plasmid

PVT4012 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pABAI Plasmid

PVT4022 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pYES2.0 Plasmid

PVT4029 2 ug
EUR 266.00

pBridge Plasmid

PVT4034 2 ug
EUR 241.00

YEP352 Plasmid

PVT4038 2 ug
EUR 241.00

pRS313 Plasmid

PVT4039 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pRS314 Plasmid

PVT4040 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pRS315 Plasmid

PVT4041 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pRS316 Plasmid

PVT4042 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pRS403 Plasmid

PVT4043 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pRS423 Plasmid

PVT4044 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pRS424 Plasmid

PVT4045 2 ug
EUR 325.00

pRS425 Plasmid

PVT4046 2 ug
EUR 325.00

The Youth Data Center (ADH) is the first and largest data catalog is specially developed to focus on open access of data in adolescents in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Developed by the Population Council Girl Innovation, Research and Education (GIRL) Center, and was launched in August 2018, ADH has grown to include more than 750 data sources in accordance with the inclusion criteria of (1) self-reported data from the female and / or males between the ages of 10 and 24 years; (2) one or more rounds of data collected in 2000 or later; (3) The data collected in one or more LMICs; (4) the data are publicly available for download and use